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AMA 11th Edition Citation Style Guide: Formatting your manuscript

This guide is based on the American Medical Association's Manual of Style, 11th edition.

Assistance with Formatting your Paper

In-text citations

In AMA style, manuscript citations are used when paraphrasing or summarizing and when directly quoting. Block quotes are used for text that is longer than four lines.

Please see Section 3.3: References Given in Text and Section 3.6: Citations in the AMA Manual of Style eBook.

The AMA uses a numerical superscript format for citing sources. Number the citations in the order presented in the paper. Superscript numbers are placed after quotation marks, commas and periods, and before colons and semicolons. 

To see examples of citation formats, go to the tab for Sample Case Study Papers in Physical Therapy.

Citing Generative Artificial Intelligence (AI) / ChatGPT / Chatbots

The use of ChatGPT and similar tools may be different for each class. Be sure to ask your course instructor about guidelines for using information generated by ChatGPT and other AI tools in your papers. When permissible to use that information directly in your research, use the suggestions below for citation formats. Also please be knowledgeable of Marymount Resources for Avoiding Plagiarism found on this webpage.

The use of ChatGPT and other AI tools in research papers is an evolving field. New formats will be added to this guide as they become available. Please consult with your teaching faculty or contact your Liaison Librarian for updates or clarification on how to cite these sources.

Plagiarism Resources

These websites may help you better understand the importance of attribution and avoid plagiarism. 

Additional AI Resources

  • JAMA article related to AI citations:

Flanagin A, Kendall-Taylor J, Bibbins-Domingo K. Guidance for Authors, Peer Reviewers, and Editors on Use of AI, Language Models, and Chatbots. JAMA. 2023;330(8):702–703. doi:10.1001/jama.2023.12500

The University of Victoria library provides this page for guidance on citing images created by using several of the most popular programs.

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